Condition that results from prolonged heartburn, which causes the lining of the esophagus to be converted into tissue similar to that which lines the stomach.
Channels that collect bile from the liver and deliver it to the intestine.
Cholestatic Diseases of the Liver
Conditions in which bile flow from the liver is impaired.
Disease of the liver, which can have many causes and is characterized by a progressive replacement of liver cells by scar tissue.
Colorectal Adenomateous Polyps
Polyps that are considered precursors to colorectal cancer.
Rare or difficult stool evacuation.
Crohn's Disease (CD)
Inflammatory bowel disease that affects the wall of the gastrointestinal tract.
Cystic Fibrosis (CF)
Congenital disease characterized by excessive secretions of certain glands, resulting in pancreatic insufficiency and pulmonary disorders.
Frequent evacuation of watery stools.
Part of the small intestine attached to the end of the stomach.
Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency (EPI)
Decreased production and release of the enzymes produced in the pancreas, which leads to digestive problems.
Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
Regulatory body for the development, approval, manufacture, sale and use of drugs in the United States.
Abnormal connection or passageway between organs or vessels that normally do not connect.
Internal medicine specialty devoted to the diseases and disorders of the digestive system.
Gastro-Esophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
Symptoms and/or mucosal damage produced by the abnormal reflux of gastric contents into the esophagus, causing heartburn or acid regurgitation.
Helicobacter Pylori (Hp)
Bacterium with a spiral tail that lives under the gastric mucosa layer. The presence of Hp is correlated with gastritis, as well as gastric and duodenal ulcers. The presence of Hp is considered to be the most important factor in the cause of peptic ulceration and it is formally classified as a carcinogen by the World Health Organization.
High-Grade Dysplasia associated with Barrett's Esophagus
Condition that results from prolonged acid reflux (heartburn) which causes the lining of the esophagus to be converted into tissue similar to that which lines the stomach; this transformation makes the esophageal tissue more susceptible to cancer.
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBDs)
Chronic diseases of unknown cause characterized by inflammation of portions of the gastrointestinal tract. IBDs include both Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn’s Disease.
Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
Functional bowel disorder which primarily affects gastrointestinal motility.
Organ located in the top right portion of the abdominal cavity connected to the digestive tract. The liver secretes bile that is excreted in the duodenum, thus facilitating digestion of food in the small intestine.
5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA).
Thin sheets of tissue that cover or line various parts of the body such as the mouth or digestive tract.
Nocturnal Acid Breakthrough (NAB)
Presence of at least 60 continuous minutes of intragastric pH less than 4 during the night, in patients taking a Proton Pump Inhibitor twice daily before meals.
Abdominal gland located behind the stomach and connected to the gastrointestinal tract that secretes pancreatic juice to aid digestion and insulin, an essential hormone for the metabolism of sugars.
Inflammation of the pancreas.
Connects the rectum or other ano-rectal area to the skin.
Inactive substances used in experimental blinded drug studies.
Primary Biliary Cirrhosis (PBC)
Chronic cholestatic liver disease that progresses slowly towards a terminal phase characterized by jaundice, signs of decompensated cirrhosis, ascites and variceal bleeding.
Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis (PSC)
Liver disorder characterized by an inflammatory and sclerosing process leading to a progressive reduction in the diameter of the bile ducts. Its progressive course generally leads to liver cirrhosis, portal hypertension and often death.
Proton Pump Inhibitor (PPI)
Proton Pump Inhibitors reduce the production of acid by blocking the enzyme in the wall of the stomach that produces acid. The reduction of acid prevents ulcers and allows any ulcers that exist in the esophagus, stomach and duodenum to heal.
Bottom portion of the large intestine extending to the anal canal.
Portion of the alimentary tract involved in the digestion process.
Abnormally high fecal excretion of undigested fat.
Necrotic lesion characterized by a craterlike erosion of the wall of the stomach (gastric ulcer) or the duodenum (duodenal ulcer), often associated with painful symptoms.
Chronic inflammatory disease which affects the inner mucus membrane of the colon, particularly the distal portions of the colon (i.e. the rectum and sigmoid).
Ursodiol (ursodeoxycholic acid)
Naturally occurring bile acid, present as a minor fraction of the total human bile acids and in greater concentrations in the bile of certain animal species such as bears.